A detailed tutorial on STM32 ADC – multiple channel、DMA、average

This tutorial shows how to use various modes of the STM32 ADCs, including:

  • Basic single-channel measurement
  • Use of interrupts
  • DMA
  • Multi-channel sequences

Before you begin, install VisualGDB 5.0 or later and ensure you are using the latest version of the STM32 BSP.

An ADC (Analog-to-Digital Converter) is a peripheral that allows measuring the voltage (between 0 and Vref) on a certain input of the microcontroller and converting it into a number between 0 and 2N-1 where N is the ADC resolution. The easiest way to experiment with an ADC is to connect it to a potentiometer – a mechanically adjustable resistor:potentiometerIf you connect one of the side terminals of the potentiometer to the GND pin on your board and the other one to the VCC pin, rotating the potentiometer knob will gradually change the voltage level (relative to ground) on the third pin between 0 and VDD, that should produce values from 0 to 4095 for a 12-bit ADC.

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Vch1 = VREFINT* (((ADch1*(VREF/4096))/(ADre*(VREF/4096)))  

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应用日志出现Application Error 1000 错误应用程序名称: w3wp.exe 程序池停止

日志名称: Application
来源: Application Error
日期: 2019/3/21 20:19:11
事件 ID: 1000
任务类别: (100)
级别: 错误
关键字: 经典
用户: 暂缺
计算机: xxxx
错误应用程序名称: w3wp.exe,版本: 7.5.7601.17514,时间戳: 0x4ce7a5f8
错误模块名称: ntdll.dll,版本: 6.1.7601.24308,时间戳: 0x5be85cc7
异常代码: 0xc0000374
错误偏移量: 0x000ce9a3
错误进程 ID: 0x6910
错误应用程序启动时间: 0x01d4a2a27f3b7d16
错误应用程序路径: C:\Windows\SysWOW64\inetsrv\w3wp.exe
错误模块路径: C:\Windows\SysWOW64\ntdll.dll

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APACHE服务器伪静态rewrite出现No input file specified.的解决方案

启用REWRITE的伪静态功能的时候,首页可以访问,而访问内页的时候,就提示:“No input file specified.”



RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ /index.php/$1 [L]

“No input file specified.”,是没有得到有效的文件路径造成的。


RewriteRule ^(.*)$ /index.php?/$1 [L]

Ubuntu installation on USB stick with pure EFI boot (Mac compatible)

All I wanted was just:

  • an USB key with Ubuntu 16.04 LTS installed on it,
  • with /home and swap encrypted,


  • that I could boot from any of my 2 Macs, by simply pressing and holding the “option” (or “alt”) key immediately after boot,


  • without messing around with their respective boot loaders.

After trying dozens of solutions on all available blogs on the Internet I finally found THE solution that worked for me!

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分组密码有五种工作体制:1.电码本模式(Electronic Codebook Book (ECB));2.密码分组链接模式(Cipher Block Chaining (CBC));3.计算器模式(Counter (CTR));4.密码反馈模式(Cipher FeedBack (CFB));5.输出反馈模式(Output FeedBack (OFB))。
1.电码本模式(Electronic Codebook Book (ECB)

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